KINGPINS OR MULES: AN ANALYSIS OF DRUG OFFENDERS INCARCERATED IN FEDERAL AND STATE PRISONS
The authors evaluate incarcerated drug offenders with regards to their participation in drug groups, the type and amount of drugs, their involvement with firearms, and their criminal conviction and arrest history, using data from the 1997 Survey of Inmates in Federal and State Correctional Facilities. They find that most offenders fall into a middle spectrum. The seriousness of their involvement depends on what factors are emphasized in the analysis (e.g. drug distribution versus possession of firearms).
Sevigny, E. L., & Caulkins, J. P. (2004). KINGPINS OR MULES: AN ANALYSIS OF DRUG OFFENDERS INCARCERATED IN FEDERAL AND STATE PRISONS. Criminology & Public Policy, 3(3), 401-434.
Sevigny, Eric L., and Jonathan P. Caulkins. "Kingpins or Mules: An Analysis of Drug Offenders Incarcerated in Federal and State Prisons." Criminology & Public Policy 3.3 (2004): 401-34.